[18] He arranged for Hyrcanus to come under the protection of the Arabian King Aretas III in Petra. Herod Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, is not mentioned in the New Testament, but ten of his descendants played major roles in the lives of Jesusand of the … More information about Herod the Great can be found in Matthew 2:1-22 and Luke 1:5. ANTIPATER (abridged form, Antipas): Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. [26] Josephus notes that with his newfound rights and honors, Antipater immediately began to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem that Pompey had destroyed when subduing Aristobulus. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. Antipater had wealth and power but he wanted more. [22], With Hyrcanus established, Antipater thrived and laid the foundation for his family's success by navigating conflicts of loyalty and power-shifting within the Roman elite. Harpswell, ME: Brunswick Press. Antipater was from Edom (Idumaea), the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. Herod quickly set about ridding Galilee of what his court historian calls "robbers," although they may also have been people resisting Roman rule. When Cassius came to Syria to collect troops, he began to demand harsh tributes, so much so that some entire cities and city curators were sold into slavery. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. The father of Antipater who went as ... /j/jason.htm - 12k. Josephus also describes the beheading o… Antipater was of the same cruel disposition as his father. He was poisoned in 43 B.C. Herod had a son whose name was Antipater. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the governors of Jerusalem and Galilee, respectively. Antipater (ca. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVII, Chapter 5:2. http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-17.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipater_(son_of_Herod_the_Great)&oldid=992391830, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 01:07. His father Herod the Great divided his large kingdom into four parts and bequeathed them to his sons, an action confirmed by the Roman senate. Antipater laid the foundation for Herod's ascension to the throne of Judea partly through his activities in the court of the Hasmoneans, the heirs of the Maccabees, who were the hereditary leaders of the Jews, and partly by currying favor with the Romans, who were growing more involved and dominant over the region at this time. Hyrcanus threatened that any Idumaean who wished to maintain their land would need to be circumcised and enter into the traditions of the Jews. Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. A fragment of a legend concerning the life of Antipater has, however, been preserved by Julius Africanus. He achieved a major increase in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra. "The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity." A native of Edom, southeast of Judah between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which under the Romans came to be known as Idumaea, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judah in the name of Roman Republic. Once the sentence had approval from Augustus in 4 BC, Antipater was then executed, and Archelaus (from the marriage with Malthace) was made heir in his father's will as king over Herod's entire kingdom (with Antipas and Philip as Tetrarchs over certain territories). [20], Hyrcanus proved ineffective as either an administrator, or more importantly, as tax collector. When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, as Judah became known to the Romans, with the right to collect taxes. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. Some time later, we read of the infamous event. 46 BC – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. [29] Cassius demanded seven hundred talents out of Judea, so Antipater split the cost between his two sons. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. Richardson, Peter (1996). Antipater's work as power-broker between the Hasmoneans, the Arabians, and the Romans inaugurated dramatic dynamics and steep changes in the history of the Jewish nation. [24] This appeal persuaded Caesar who then appointed Antipater the first Roman Procurator of Judea. "[1], We know two of Antipater's wives through the writings of Josephus. Herod was born 73 B.C., and he is first mentioned as governor of Galilee (Jos., “Ant.”, XIV, ix, 2). Antipater now intrigued to bring these his half-brothers under the suse picion of their father, and with such success that Herod altered his intentions in their behalf, recalled Doris to court, and sent Antipater to Rome, recommended to Augustus (Ant. Matters in Judea were finally calm for a time. The two men had such a relationship that Antipater entrusted his children to his friend when he went to war with the Hasmonean Aristobulus II. Hyrcanus agreed to retire from public life. This account serves two purposes; when the Persian King Cyrus sent the captives in Babylon back to Judea, it is likely that some chose to settle elsewhere. "Cypros" redirects here. Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. Herod's attempt to humiliate Alexander by restoring to honor Antipater, an older son by another wife, resulted disastrously. Josephus presents two opposing reasons, one which would help secure Hyrcanus against the rising threat of Herod,[32] and the other being his desire to quickly dispose of Hyrcanus and take power himself. Antipas ruled from Herod the Great’s death in either 4BC or 1 BC 1 until he was deposed by Caligula in AD 39. Antipater was the father of King Herod the Great. [21] Antipater recognized Rome's growing dominance in the region and exploited it to his advantage. They had four sons: Phasael, Herod, Joseph, and Pheroas, and a daughter, Salome, one of several Salomes among the Herodians. [8] Josephus acknowledges Herod as being "by birth a Jew" and Antipater as being "of the same people" with the Jews. 74 BCE). While Caesar was besieged in Alexandria, Antipater rescued him with three thousand men and the aid of numerous nearby friends. , when Roman Emperor Julius Caesar (100—44 B.C.E. ) [21], After the assassination of Julius Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Cassius against Mark Antony. Herod was born in southern Palestine. Concerning Antipater's execution following on the heel of Herod's executions a couple of years before of his sons Alexander and Aristobulus, it would be recounted in the compendium Saturnalia (compiled by Macrobius) that Augustus remarked "It is better to be Herod's pig than his son. Hayes, John H., and Sara R. Mandell (1998). Personal details. After the death of Alexander Janeueus his wife Queen Alexandra Salome ruled for a … Gissin, Mikhail (2014). He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. Antipas was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch (“ruler of a quarter”) and is referred to as both “Herod the Tetrarch” and “King Herod” in the New Testament although he never held the title of king. When Julius Caesar and Pompey went to battle in Egypt, Pompey was killed, so Antipater in 47 BCE shifted his allegiance to Caesar, and indeed ingratiated himself with Caesar. For the country, see, Roman procurator and appointments of sons, Kokkinos, Nikos. Herod Antipas is arguably most famous for beheading John the Baptist. Salome, Herod, Pheroras, and two other brothers were the children of Antipater I, who was of Idumean descent. He managed to keep hold of his throne in the face of the many changes in the government at Rome. Antipater married Cypros, a Nabataean noblewoman, which helped endear the Nabateans to him. Antipater, who seems to have succeeded his father as governor of Idumæa, had reason to … This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 19:03. [14] Indeed, it is clear in the various forms of assistance that Antipater provides to both Hyrcanus II, brother of Aristobulus, and the Romans, that he possessed great resources, and brilliant military and political capabilities.[15]. ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater I, and father of * Herod. He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome. Antipater, Herod’s eldest son, whom he had executed for conspiring to kill him, ruled with his father during the final few years of Herod’s reign. 24. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. According to Graves, a pregnant Mary is compelled to pretend to marry an old, pious carpenter, Joseph, to protect herself and the unborn Jesus. [11] Their marriage helped bring about a close friendship between him and King Aretas, called by Josephus "Aretas the Arabian", to whom Cypros was related. Antípatros; c. 46 – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. "The Dusk of Judea and the Dawn of a New Dynasty." (3) Antipater the father of Herod the Great. He retained this position even when Alexander and Aristobulus (Herod's sons by Mariamne) rose in the royal succession in 12 BC, and even became exclusive successor to the throne after their execution in 7 BC (with Herod II in second place). The story starts with Antipater, the father of Herod. Having favored the winning side in the conflict, Antipater's star rose, especially since he cooperated with the Romans as much … Antipater now intrigued to bring these his half-brothers under the suse picion of their father, and with such success that Herod altered his intentions in their behalf, recalled Doris to court, and sent Antipater to Rome, recommended to Augustus (Ant. ", XIV, ix, 2). This son was also named Antipater and it was he who was the father of Herod the Great. Africanus ascribes Antipater's Idumaean character to a raid by the people during which Antipater was kidnapped, and following his father's failure to pay ransom, he was taken down to Idumaea proper where he was raised in the teachings of Judaism. Herod's grandfather and father held prominent political offices in Judea and established close relations with the Romans, the unquestioned world power during that time. He retained this position even when Alexander and Aristobulus(Herod's sons by Mariamne) ro… According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas (I). For his "demonstrations of valor" Caesar elevated Antipater to Roman citizenship, freed him from taxes, and showered him with honors and declarations of friendship. Herod the Great's Story . Antipater’s son Herod appealed to Rome for aid, and was appointed king of Judaea in 40 B.C. The pro-Roman politics of Antipater led to his increasing unpopularity among the devout, non-Hellenised Jews. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern…. Because he trusted Herod, Antony set things in motion to install Herod in Judea in place of its current ruler, Antigonus. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. [16] Antipater, who seems to have succeeded his father as governor of Idumæa, had reason to fear that King Aristobulus would not retain him in this position. He was given the title of Tetrarch (“ruler of a quarter”), although he was sometimes known as King Herod, as his father had been (Mk 6:14). ANTIPATER II or ANTIPASANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS (d. 43 b.c.e. According to Sextus Julius Africanus, Antipater's father was named Herod, not Antipas, Epiphanius of Salamis furthered this claim by writing Antipas was in fact the father of this Herod. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater produced the Herodian dynasty; he paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who married the Hasmonean princess Mariamne,[35] endeared himself to Rome, and usurped the Judean throne to become king of Judea under Roman influence. Antipater was from Edom. Herod III Antipater (born prior to 20BC; 4BC – 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, and was the son of Herod I the Great (c. 4 BC/1AD). [2], Antipater was known as a seditious and trouble-making man, and he exploited the weak-willed Hyrcanus for the sake of his ambition. Unlike Graves, however, Raymond specifies that Mary was actually the unnamed daughter of Antigonus who would later become Antipater's wife. Early Church Fathers often portrayed Herod polemically, and as such, their accounts of his familial origin reflected poetic license in place of historical accuracy. The family seems to have been of Idumaean origin, so that its members were liable to the reproach of being half-Jews or even foreigners. [19], Although Pompey and his lieutenant Scaurus initially ruled in Aristobulus’ favor when the brothers brought their case forward, on the third intervention Pompey ordered the brothers to wait. The word tetrarch signifies that one who governs a fourth part of a kingdom. Together they attacked Aristobulus in Jerusalem, and there was a great upheaval that drew the attention of the Roman magistrate Pompey assigned to the eastern Mediterranean province. Aristobulus impatiently provoked a political offense that brought Pompey to appoint Hyrcanus the ethnarch of Judea. Antipater II (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος, translit. However, he was recalled following Mariamne's fall in 29 BC and in 13 BC Herod made him his first heir in his will. [17] After Hyrcanus stepped down, Antipater persuaded him to contend against his brother for his rightful position, and even convinced the unsuspecting and reluctant Hyrcanus that his younger brother intended to kill him. After the assassination of Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony. Herod and his father … [6], But hearing these words, Herod, King of the Jews within the two years in length between, Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVII, Chapter 1:2; see. Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favor of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power. Antipater was found guilty by Varus; however, due to Antipater's high rank, it was necessary for Caesar Augustus to approve of the recommended sentence of death. The Herodian Dynasty: Origins, Role In Society and Eclipse. [4] He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. [2] Josephus writes that he was a man of great authority among the Idumeans, both wealthy and born into a dignified family. [3] They demonstrate the tensions that existed between the Jewish people and the powerful Edomites who appear at this time. [6] Josephus explains this rendering by critiquing its author: Nicolaus wrote to please Herod and would do so at the cost of truthfulness. He was born in Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea in 73 BC to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. In this conflict, the Roman general Pompey intervened in Hyrcanus' favor. If you enjoyed our bible study, we would love to hear from you, you can use our contact page for any comments or suggestions. As such, in a polemic against Herod to discredit him in the eyes of the Romans as unfit to become king of the Jews, Antigonus the Hasmonean is quoted by Josephus as referring to Herod as "no more than a private man, and an Idumean, i.e. Herod was born 73 BCE as the son of a man from Idumea named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. In the 1881 Library of Universal Knowledge, vol, #1 of 15, p. 531, it states in part: “ ANTIPATER: Of the many persons who bore this name in antiquity, the most celebrated was one of the generals and confidential friends of king Philip of Macedon. Antipater's schemes came to nothing, however, for one of the last acts of Herod's life was an order to execute Antipater, who had instigated the murder of his half brothers and conspired to poison his father. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. He was born in Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea in 73 BC to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. Schiffman, Lawrence H., "Judea Under Roman Rule", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipater_the_Idumaean&oldid=994440011, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. His father, Antipater, was an Edomite (a Semitic people, identified by some scholars as Arab, who converted to Judaism in the 2nd century bce ). To be circumcised and enter into the traditions of the Herodian Dynasty: Origins, in. 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