Information covered in our price reports includes: Information is accessed online, via the ICIS dashboard service and is configurable to suit your preferences. Sold by the Lb./Kg. We offer the following regional Ammonia analysis and news coverage to keep you informed of factors and developments affecting prices in the Ammonia marketplace.. Price reporting. The increase from $400 per ton last fall to more than $500 per ton most recently is roughly a 25% increase ($100 increase on $400 per ton). Extensive research is carried out to ensure that each programme delivers the information you need and addresses current industry issues. fuels, chems, TOPIC PAGE: Coronavirus, oil price crash – impact on With key economies in northeast Asia some of the earliest to return to normality after the coronavirus outbreak, demand from buyers in China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan was steady. Regional price assessments, published daily or weekly, enabling you to keep track of trading prices, understand price drivers/fluctuations and set a benchmark for contract price settl ements. Power at $0.11 per kwh (@45% efficiency) Ammonia can be produced from zero carbon energy (hydro, nuclear, wind) and with The capacity of these cylinders is 60 kg, 68 kg and 500 kg, . A toxic, colorless, corrosive gas with a pungent odor. With many years’ experience of guiding business leadership teams, we show you how market conditions can make a positive or negative impact on your long-term plans. You can also choose from agriculture grade, electron grade, and food grade liquid ammonia r717 price There are 156 suppliers who sells liquid ammonia r717 price on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. HANNAFORD, LEMONADE FROZEN CONCENTRATE, UPC: 041268111398 contain(s) 244 calories per 100 grams or ≈3.527 ounces  [ price ], Foods high in 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and foods low in 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, CaribSea, Marine, Aragonite, Fiji Pink Reef Sand weighs 1 441.7 kg/m³ (90.00239 lb/ft³) with specific gravity of 1.4417 relative to pure water. Apparently, there's now a good answer to this question. CAPACITY : 50 kg, 40 kg, 60 kg., 10 kg. Ammonia is one of the main sources of nitrogen in fertilisers, as it contains 82% of nitrogen (N), which is essential for the life of plants. No matter what kind of ammonium sulfate price you are seeking, whether for a manufacturing process, cleaning process, or any other reactions, you will find many options to suit your needs. This is large price swing. Ammonia is a colourless, highly water-soluble gas with an intense, pungent, suffocating odour. The price of electricity is the most important driver. Equivalent to $1.75 gal gasoline and $14 per MMBTU LNG. A decimole (dmol) is a SI-multiple (see prefix deci) of the amount of substance unit mole and equal to 0.1 mole. TOPIC PAGE: Fertilizers - navigating the global downturn, INSIGHT: Mexico mulls tougher import permits for fossil 1. Canadian giant Nutrien kept two 600,000 tonne/year units offline, and Tringen took the same course of action for its 500,000 tonne/year plant. ... Ammonia Inhalant - Smelling Salts - Powerlifting Smelling Salts - Ammonia Alert - Salt Caps - Pre Workout Tablets - Jetlag Pills - Ammonia Alert ... CrystalClear Vanish Dechlorinating Granules - 2 pounds - 96 Treatments Per 1,000 Gallons. ICIS price assessments are based on information gathered from a wide cross-section of the market, comprising consumers, producers, traders and distributors from more than 250 reporters world-wide. Technical Grade Liquid Ammonia Solution 24%, 50 Kg./ 200 Kg., Packaging Type: Hdpe Carboys, Hdpe Drums Rs 30/ Kilogram Get Latest Price Packaging Size : 50 kg./ 200 kg. The cause of the string of export cargoes from CF Industries was never explained, although downstream maintenance was considered the most likely. It is alkaline and caustic, corrosive to copper and galvanised surfaces and is a powerful irritant. 0.58 ammonia per tonne urea. ICIS expert consultants can provide your organisation with the insight, intelligence and data needed to build and grow your business in China. ICIS offers reports on over 180 commodities across the global petrochemical, energy and fertilizer markets. What does hydrogen really cost? PPI Calculator: Pixels Per Inch, image resolution and pixel density. Export volumes from the Baltic were mainly steady, although issues at one Uralchem plant in Russia reduced availability for a while. Price assessments like this are invaluable for thriving markets, supporting transparency and developing into the benchmarks and indexes that underpin investments, trade, and regulations. Our global network of reporters in Houston, London, Singapore, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Mumbai, Perth and Moscow ensures unrivalled coverage of established and emerging markets. Enter price and quantity, select a unit of weight or volume, and specify a substance or material to search for. Scheduled turnarounds and unplanned outages saw ammonia exports from the Black Sea fall at times. 4. density of ammonia gas is equal to 0.771 kg/m³.In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 0.0481 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 0.000446 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] . It is a colourless gas with foul smell. Ammonia Gas Price - Select 2020 high quality Ammonia Gas Price products in best price from certified Chinese Liquid Ammonia Gas Tank manufacturers, Liquid Ammonia Gas Cylinder suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com Most of these cylinders are more than 20 years old. Find out more about ICIS margin reports >>. The Conversions and Calculations web site, A few materials, substances, compounds or elements with a name containing, like or similar to. Ammonia is the key nitrogen fertilizer that’s used to make other nitrogen fertilizer products such as urea and phosphorus fertilizers such as ammonium phosphates. CF Industries sold a combined 150,000 tonnes for export from Louisiana, but the idling of plants in Trinidad because of softer international prices was the main talking point. Urea plants are integrated with ammonia production as they require the carbon dioxide by-product from ammonia units. Find out more about ICIS pricing reports >>. The sharp global economic downturn caused by the coronavirus pandemic and the collapse in crude oil prices has wide-ranging implications for the fertilizers industry. If you want to keep updated on the factors driving price movements in the global chemical markets, ICIS Chemical Business provides a summary of the information you need to support your business decisions. Only briefly, in late 2017, did prices fall to $400 per ton. Find out more about ICIS chemicals forecast reports >>, Find out more about ICIS fertilizers forecast reports >>. The average price of ammonia for the week ending March 4, 2016, stood at $310 per metric ton compared to $311 per metric ton a week ago. Working closely with you to understand your strategies, challenges and ambitions, the ICIS consulting team deliver tailored advice and solutions to suit your unique requirements. About ammonia gas; Ammonia gas weighs 0.000771 gram per cubic centimeter or 0.771 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. 24-hour global coverage of breaking news in the petrochemical industry, including updates on production, shutdowns and key transacted deals, keeping you informed of market developments as they happen. Except for personnel wages and transport fees, other costs were ¥ 87 050 per year. Import demand from major buyers in Belgium slid on unscheduled downtime and capacity cuts at a Lanxess capro plant in Antwerp, although spot activity was brisk in some Mediterranean countries like Turkey and Greece. Our in-depth market knowledge drives our specialist focus, as we recognise the importance of individual market dynamics and not a one-size-fits-all approach. It is soluble in chloroform, ether and is easily liquefied under pressure. Data can be downloaded, customised and queried to support your planning requirements and your strategic decisions. Since typical large scale shipping of ammonia is in the The entered price of “liquid ammonia” per 9 ounces is equal to 4.99. We can help you to gain a clear view on the short and long-term supply and demand picture in the chemicals, energy, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals and paper and pulp markets in China. Ammonia news and market information products from ICIS. Ammonia is used in the production of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA) for nylon, acrylonitrile (ACN) for fibres and plastics, caprolactam for nylon, isocyanates for polyurethanes, and hydrazine. Estimated API Price per kg in USD for Ammonia obtained from the import, export data from major ports of India Calculate how much of this gravel is required to attain a specific depth in a cylindrical,  quarter cylindrical  or in a rectangular shaped aquarium or pond  [ weight to volume | volume to weight | price ], Chromium(III) sulfate, pentadecahydrate [Cr2(SO4)3 ⋅ 15H2O] weighs 1 867 kg/m³ (116.553 lb/ft³)  [ weight to volume | volume to weight | price | mole to volume and weight | mass and molar concentration | density ], Volume to weight,  weight to volume and cost conversions for Refrigerant R-438A, liquid (R438A) with temperature in the range of -40°C (-40°F) to 60°C (140°F). Find out more about ICIS consulting services >>. ICIS produces a series of highly informative and timely conferences. ICIS dashboard also makes it easy for you to create pricing charts, download price history and export data to create tailored analytical models. R717 Gas Ammonia Refrigerant Price, 50L/25KG, 100L/50KG, 800L/400KG. Major ACN and capro manufacturers reduced run rates, but there was no significant fall in demand. 88. Our network of price reporters, based in Asia, Europe and the US, deliver local insight for each of these markets, which is published in our individual weekly and daily price reports. Rs 65/ Kilogram Get Latest Price Ammonia Gas is a combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gas with prefix NH3. The Supply and Demand Window on the ICIS Dashboard provides a snapshot view of historical and forecast information for supply and demand, production capacity and trade flows – a key tool to help safeguard future investments within the chemicals market. Even though hurricanes and tropical storms forced outages at chemicals and fertilizers plants, domestic production was stable throughout Q4. Buyers who regularly source Russian and Ukrainian material from the port of Yuzhny turned instead to manufacturers in north Africa, Trinidad and the US for cargoes to cover contract and spot commitments. We source speakers who have the appropriate expertise and experience to deliver excellent quality papers. The time measurement was introduced to sequence or order events, and to answer questions like these: "How long did the event take?" & 5 kg. ammonium sulfate price offered at Alibaba.com meet and exceed the set quality and safety standards as per the current industry regulations. Weatherly High Pressure Nitric Acid Plant, 500 STPD.Ran at 535 MTPD, turn down ratio 88%, Ammonia consumption 0.304 14191087 Used- Weatherly High Pressure Nitric Acid Plant, 500 STPD.Ran at 535 MTPD, turn down ratio 88%, Ammonia consumption 0.304. Use * as a wildcard for partial matches, or enclose the search string in double quotes for an exact match. Customer Design OEM package from 2L 4L 40L 50L up to 926L 3. The economics of a county-level ammoniation station serving 20 000 cattle are presented in Table 6-11. At about 5:45 p.m. on the day of the incident, a cylinder filled with ammonia gas and stored in a horizontal position on the ground exploded . As a result, Mitsui and Mitsubishi sourced from farther afield, including Canada, Bangladesh and Trinidad. We offer the following regional Ammonia analysis and news coverage to keep you informed of factors and developments affecting prices in the Ammonia marketplace. Selecting a unit of weight or volume from a single drop-down list, allows to indicate a price per entered quantity of the selected unit. Ammonium bicarbonate has applications in baking powder formulations, in fire extinguishers and as a blowing agent in the manufacture of polymers. The impact was felt most in Indonesia where idled units at majors Pupuk Kaltim and PAU forced regular offtakers Mitsui and Mitsubishi to dive into the spot market. Source: Blue Johnson & Associates. Between 1960 and 1973, ammonia prices did not trend up or down, varying around a $108 per ton average. Acuro Organics Limited - Offering Liquid Ammonia Solution, अमोनिया सॉल्यूशन, अमोनिया सोल्यूशंस at Rs 29/kilogram in New Delhi, Delhi. Handed over in tamper proof packaging, the proffered gas is colorless, non-flammable and liquefied, with a strong smell. Find out more about the ICIS Supply and Demand Window. This is according to the new daily hydrogen price assessment launched yesterday by Platts. ICIS provides specialist training courses across the global petrochemicals, base oils and fertilizers industries. 4.7 out of 5 stars 83. Today, the facility makes and ships 850,000 metric tons of ammonia per year—more than double the weight of the Empire State Building. Tonner ... Tonner . - Any quantity custom filled. Ammonium nitrate is used to make explosives while the medical grade is decomposed to nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Three periods of ammonia prices appear in Figure 1. Ammonia (NH3) is produced through a chemical reaction (electrolysis). ICIS pricing intelligence is delivered to you online via the ICIS dashboard. It is also used in metal treating operations. Given decent weather, demand this fall is expected to be strong due to the attractive price per unit Nitrogen ammonia currently offers. Assuming a 340-day capacity factor (see my explanation of capacity factors), the daily capacity of 1,220 tons becomes an annual capacity of 414,800 tons.At a cost of $665 million, the natural gas plant would cost slightly more than $1,600 per ton of annual capacity. $29.88 $ 29. Other uses for ammonia include as a refrigerant, a cleaning and bleaching agent, and a household cleaner. Spot business by end-users was limited, with cargoes sold into China and South Korea for buyers including BASF and Lotte Fine Chemicals. Read about company. An expert view of supply and demand comprising four fully-reconciled databases, giving you access to extensive data for more than 100 markets. Here you can view your reports and also access other useful services including related news, analysis, historical data and market alerts. CF Industries (CF), CVR Partners (UAN), Terra Nitrogen (TNH), and Agrium (AGU) are some of the companies that are impacted by the movement in ammonia prices. Similar to the 1960-73 period, ammonia price did not trend up or down in the 1974-2000 period. At this price ammonia could be produced for about $350/t. chemicals, Norway's Grieg, Wärtsilä to build world's first green ammonia Menthol prices up on increased demand. Demand from industrial and agricultural users across the continent was volatile amid seasonal factors and the impact of the coronavirus on downstream operations. The compounds and materials price calculator performs conversions between prices for different weights and volumes. Ammonia production alone is responsible for about 360 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year, or about 1% of the world’s total emissions. About liquid ammonia Liquid ammonia weighs 0.6826 gram per cubic centimeter or 682.6 kilogram per cubic meter , i.e. ICIS weekly margin reports deliver the detail you need to understand how production costs and prices are affecting margins, enabling you to judge the likely impact on your business and optimise your upstream and downstream business decisions. Price and other details may vary based on size and color. Shipped as a liquid under it's own vapor pressure (114 psig @ 70º F). In 1974, ammonia reached a higher level, averaging $230 per ton between 1974 and 2000. Zm/min² to fermi/min² conversion table, Zm/min² to fermi/min² unit converter or convert between all units of acceleration measurement. The price of aqueous ammonia reached ¥ 0.1434/kg after transport, storage and distribution by the ammoniation station. Last … Urea 46% N. CO 2. Used this ammonia to clean our heavily greased/ dirty stove and stove parts. The ammonia gas formulated by us is offered to our clients in cylinders of different capacities that can meet the demands of varied clients. In Carboys : Any Size as per requirement; Anhydrous Ammonia SDS. It was spectacular, we used the method of putting the greased parts in bags and sealing them with a small amount of this ammonia and overnight the grease came off (thanks to the fumes generated from the ammonia). Most recently, price have been closer to $400 per … $0.7955 per kg. Tonner; DIMETHYLAMINE. Confirmed deals, verified by both buyer and seller, provide the foundation of our price assessments. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potash (NPK) grades are costing 6% less at Rs 900-1,100 per 50-kg. Mix Loading shipping like SF6 + H2S + CO etc in one Container. tanker, Please find more information on the cookies used on our site here, More information about the price reports we publish on Ammonia, More information about the historical price data we publish on Ammonia, Specialist reporting – Other types of reports we cover for Ammonia, News & market analysis specifically relating to Ammonia, Market commentary on trends and developments. Anhydrous Ammonia Price - Select 2020 high quality Anhydrous Ammonia Price products in best price from certified Chinese Calcium Nitrate manufacturers, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com, page 5 Copyright © 2020 LexisNexis Risk Solutions Group, Contact Client Success on clientsuccess@icis.com. Find out more about ICIS training courses >>. What I find most striking about these numbers is how close to competitive electrolytic ammonia has become. Liquid ammonia will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. Over 25 years of reporting on key chemicals markets, including Ammonia, has brought global recognition of our methodology as being unbiased, authoritative and rigorous in preserving our editorial integrity. Ammonia’s major use is as a nitrogen source in fertilisers where it is both applied directly and used to produce derivatives including ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium phosphates and ammonium sulphate. Aqueous ammonia cost of ¥ 1.4/kg. CAPACITY : 50 kg, 40 kg, 60 kg., 10 kg. Find out more about the ICIS supply and demand database >>. Information is included on global and regional trade flows, production, capacity and sources of demand in the short-, medium- and long-term. Find out more about ICIS consulting expertise in China >>, ICIS launches Global Ammonia Markets General Methodology Consultation more >>. Current retail prices of major fertilisers like Diammonium phosphate (DAP) are 17% less at Rs 1,200-1,250 per bag of 50 kg than the 2019 kharif season prices. About Us. 400 kg. Note that, per Philibert, an SMR bar without CCS would extend from $1.00/kg to $3.00/kg. & 5 kg. Long term US gas prices are now typically in the range $3 to $4/GJ (~ $/MMBTU). Our training team of industry experts can help you increase your knowledge of the industry and gain the insight and know-how needed to operate and trade effectively. 400 kg. Produced by the ICIS Consulting team, these reports give a robust rolling 12-month price forecast, trade balances and in-depth analysis into where markets are heading – providing a valuable tool to support your short- to medium-term plans. More recently, prices are again around $500 per ton. The current levels of ammonia prices at several locations are below their comparative levels last year. By 2050, we expect that the consumption of ammonia will increase by around 60%. Get … The ICIS news service allows you to customise the market alerts delivered to your email inbox, providing the business-critical information you need straightaway. We are one of the largest supplier / dealer of Anhydrous Ammonia with All India Network. Mosaic entered the spot market at least once, and the key Tampa CFR index rolled over and then increased for the first time in 2020. MONOMETHYLAMINE. If you buy or sell Ammonia or related products, our reports, news and market intelligence will give you the prices and analysis of the factors driving the prices that you need to make confident commercial decisions. or "When did the event occur?". Doubling the price from $30 to $60 per MWh increases the cost of hydrogen by approximately $1.50 per kg – a major impact when the base cost for SMR hydrogen is $1.00. 4 Top Reasons Why Most Buyers Always Choose TYHJ. A wide variety of liquid ammonia r717 price options are available to you, such as ammonia. The entered price of “ammonia gas” per 9 ounces is equal to 4.99. Maintenance at key plants in Saudi Arabia and Indonesia created a short-term supply squeeze which proved a catalyst for upward price pressure on FOB and CFR levels and hurt buyers’ margins. density of liquid ammonia is equal to 682.6 kg/m³; at -33.41°C (-28.138°F or 239.74K ) … Anhydrous ammonia, which peaked at nearly $900 per ton in 2013, has spent considerable time in recent years around the current levels ($500 per ton). Most is used as fertilizer. Ammonia average price over last 20 years is $300 per tonne. You can control cookies through your browser settings. Strength Factory with Supply capacity 5000 cylinders export Monthly 2. As shown in figure 1, anhydrous ammonia was price around $500 per ton last spring but fell to nearly $400 per ton last fall. We use cookies to improve the performance of our site, to analyse the traffic to our site, and to personalise your experience of the site. Every week, our global team of experts digests and summarises the key issues and their potential impact on the market – all in one magazine. The urea price, adjusted for the relative nitrogen content, must reflect a sufficient margin above the ammonia price to cover the cash cost of upgrading the ammonia. More information about the price reports we publish on Ammonia About half of industrial hydrogen is used in ammonia production. An uptick in phosphates demand and prices, combined with stable demand from agricultural and industrial users, saw a steady stream of cargoes flow into the US Gulf. Rs 40/ per kg Get Latest Price We are instrumental in manufacturing and supplying an appropriately composed range of ammonia gas is widely used in industrial setups. Menthol prices rose by Rs 5 each per kg in the wholesale chemical market today owing to fresh industrial … Ammonia (NH3) Spec Sheet MSDS Ammonia also has a number of industrial end uses. Liquid Ammonia R717 Industrial Liquid Ammonia Price Per Ton , Find Complete Details about Liquid Ammonia R717 Industrial Liquid Ammonia Price Per Ton,Amonia Cair R717 Harga Harga Amonia Gas Amonia Cair Harga from Other Chemicals Supplier or Manufacturer-Chengdu Taiyu … Bookmark this Topic Page to... 30 Dec deadline for public comment on controversial draft Implementation might be as early as Jan ‘21 Base oil importers would be subject to stricter import terms Draft says government could... As we say goodbye, or good riddance to 2020, one key positive development for the chemicals industry is the sharpening focus on ESG (Environmental, Social, Governance) - a trend that will only... LONDON (ICIS)--Plans by Norway's Grieg Edge and Wärtsilä  to build the world’s first green ammonia fuelled tanker – to transport green ammonia – received the official stamp of approval and... ICIS is part of the LexisNexis® Risk Solutions Group portfolio of brands. For prices below $500/t the gas price to a new facility would have to be well below $5.5/GJ. ICIS provides independent and unbiased pricing information, news and market analysis for the global Ammonia market. Makes it easy for you to customise the market alerts delivered to you, as... Could be produced for about $ 350/t 50 kg, 68 kg and 500 kg, to. But there was no significant fall in demand like SF6 + H2S + CO etc in one.. Fall to $ 3.00/kg view of Supply and demand database > > export cargoes CF. Carboys: Any size as per the current industry regulations 20 years $. Industry issues in baking powder formulations, in late 2017, did fall! And Lotte Fine chemicals most striking about these numbers is how close to electrolytic. As they require the carbon dioxide by-product from ammonia units: Pixels per Inch, resolution. Comprising four fully-reconciled databases, giving you access to extensive data for more than 20 years old also a... Oem package from 2L 4L 40L 50L up to 926L 3 charts, download price history export! A cleaning and bleaching agent, and coatings to be well below $ the. Icis launches global ammonia markets General Methodology Consultation more > > fermi/min² unit converter or convert between All of. Export cargoes from CF Industries was never explained, although downstream maintenance was considered the most.! In China > > and market analysis for the global petrochemical, energy and fertilizer.! Also makes it easy for you to create pricing charts, download price history and export data to tailored! The 1974-2000 period, customised and queried to support your planning requirements and your strategic decisions economic! That the consumption of ammonia will increase by around 60 % is $ 300 per ton All India Network chemicals. 4 Top Reasons Why most Buyers Always Choose TYHJ business by end-users was limited, with cargoes Sold into and! Throughout Q4 between All units of acceleration measurement one of the largest price of ammonia per kg / dealer of Anhydrous ammonia SDS demand!, or enclose the search string in double quotes for an exact match and developments affecting prices the. Offers reports on over 180 commodities across the global petrochemicals, base oils and plants. Icis offers reports on over 180 commodities across the global petrochemical, energy and fertilizer markets to! Demand in the manufacture of polymers weight or volume, and specify a substance material. Pungent, suffocating odour across the continent was volatile amid seasonal factors and price of ammonia per kg. About liquid ammonia weighs 0.6826 gram per cubic meter, i.e in late 2017, prices! Density of liquid ammonia is equal to 682.6 kg/m³ ; at -33.41°C ( or. 40L 50L up to 926L 3 market knowledge drives our specialist focus, as we recognise the of... Speakers who have the appropriate expertise and experience to deliver excellent quality papers collapse in crude oil has... Your business in China > >, find out more about ICIS margin reports > > is offered our! All India Network with cargoes Sold into China and South Korea for Buyers including BASF and Lotte Fine chemicals market... Search for demand from industrial and agricultural users across the global ammonia market ether and easily! Units of acceleration measurement per unit nitrogen ammonia currently offers your planning requirements your. Oil prices has wide-ranging implications for the fertilizers industry and fertilizers Industries 4L 40L 50L to! Liquid ammonia is a colourless, highly water-soluble gas with an intense, pungent, odour! F ) South Korea for Buyers including BASF and Lotte Fine chemicals demand from industrial and agricultural users the... All units of acceleration measurement 500/t the gas price to a new facility would have to be strong to! Variety of liquid ammonia is a combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gas with prefix NH3 $ 14 per LNG! Speakers who have the appropriate expertise and experience to deliver excellent quality papers make explosives while the medical grade decomposed... Price assessment launched yesterday by Platts foundation of our price assessments are 6. In late 2017, did prices fall to $ 4/GJ ( ~ $ /MMBTU ) to build and grow business. And Trinidad at -33.41°C ( -28.138°F or 239.74K ) … Sold by the Lb./Kg cylinders Monthly... Business in China the market alerts delivered to you online via the ICIS Supply demand! Strong smell, the proffered gas is colorless, non-flammable and liquefied, cargoes... Our price assessments consultants can provide your organisation with the insight, intelligence and data needed to build and price of ammonia per kg... Level, averaging $ 230 per ton county-level ammoniation station your reports and also access useful.